# AP Objectives Of Atomic Structure And Periodic Table

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History of Atom and Atomic Structure

The student should be able to :

1. Trace the development of atomic theory and the structure of the atom from the Greeks to the present (Dalton, Thompson, Rutherford, Bohr, and charge cloud model).

• b) Understand the four part of Dalton Atomic Theory, how we have updated his original theory, and the importance of his theory.
• c) Be able to calculate Law of Definite Proportion and Law of Multiple Proportion problems.
• d) Explain, using the experiment set-up and the results, how Thomson came up with the concept of electron (and the fact that their is only one type of electron). From his work, explain the atomic model, Plum pudding model of the atom.
• e) Memorize what the following scientist did: Millikian (oil drop expt, determine actual mass & charge of electron), Goldstein (discovered proton), and Chadwick (discovered neutron).
• g) Explain, using the Gold leaf experiment set-up and the results, how Rutherford came up with the concept of nucleus (remember, there are 3 characteristics) and how the electrons move outside the nucleus. Explain Rutherford shortcomings.
• h) Explain Bohr's (planetary model of the atom) theory of the atom including distance electron from nucleus = energy in electron, how electrons move in atoms (ground state of atom, excited state of atom, electron in lower energy level, electron in higher energy level).

2. Explain photoelectric effect (Einstein) and how it relates to the concept of the electron and the atom. (physical example of why electrons can only be "in" energy levels)

3. Explain what light is in terms of DeBroglie, Planck (particle characteristics), and light characteristics.

4. Be able to calculate energy, wavelength and frequency using all appropriate equations and how the variable relate to each other (e.g. direct vs, indirect proportion).
5. Be able to calculate Energy changes for electrons going between energy levels using Bohr's energy equation (E=2.79

6. Be able to explain the difference between a continuous spectrum, emission spectra, and absorption spectra. Also know the components of the emission and absorption spectra including how it relates to the movement of an electron.

Atomic Structure and Quantum Mechanics

The student should be able to:

1. Explain the Charge Cloud Model of the atom and how it relates to the electron. Also, give the big picture of where the electrons are "located" and why it is so important that we know where the electrons are.

2. Explain the difference between classical (Newtonian) mechanics and quantum mechanics.

3. Explain the contribution of Bohr, Planck and deBroglie to Quantum Mechanics.

4. Explain Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle with respect to the electron.

5. Explain how Schrodinger's equation helped in understanding the location (highest probability of finding) of the electron and the establishment of subenergy levels and orbtials.

6. Define what a node is, what it means with respect to standing wave and the number of nodes in an energy level.

7. Generate the subenergy from lowest energy (closest to the nucleus) to the highest subenergy level (farthest from nucleus). Should be able to do this just from the Periodic Table.

8. Know the 3 rules of filling in electron in subenergy / orbital including name and what it means (Aufbau Principle, Hund'sRule, and Pauli Exclusion Principle)

9. Understand that only Hydrogen atom has degenerate subenergy levels and orbitals.

10. Determine the correct electron configuration for any atom (Remember to write the last subenergy levels out as orbitals) including the half-half and half-full exceptions.
11. Explain the significance of the wave function (and its square).

12. Explain the penetrating effect of electrons and how it determine which subenergy levels are filled with electrons first.

13. Be able to determine the number of valence electrons for any "s" or "p" block element. Also, explain which one of Zinc electrons are lost when forming its cation (goes to understand of penetrating effect of electron).

History of Periodic Table and Periodic Trends

Each student will be able to:

• 1) Explain the difference between Medeleev and Moseley's Periodic Table.

• 2) Explain the relationship of an element's position on the Periodic Table to its atomic number (Periodic law) including defining Periodic Law.

• 3) Define Isoelectronic species and determine them for an element or ion.

• 4) Relate the position of an element on the Periodic Table to its Electron Configuration.

• 5) Relate the chemical charateristics (reactivity) to the Family elements and how Electron configuration detemines it.

• 6) Give appropriate Elements for the Groups, Periods, and other designated elements including metals, non-metals, and metalloids (semi-metals). </b>.

• 7) Students need to be able to locate the following on the Periodic Table: Period,Group,Alkali metal, Alkaline Earth metals, Transition Elements, Inner Transition Elements,Lanthanoid series, Actinoid series, Noble or Inert Gases, Halogen, Nitrogen Family, Oxygen Family, metals, non-metals, semi-metals or Metalloids, (s-,p-,d-,f-block elements), phase of elements @20degreeC.

• 8) Describe what Coulombic force (both attractive & repulsive) and the two major factors that affect the strength of the Coulombic Force (charge on the nucleus & electron).

• 9) Define covalent atomic radius, van der Waals radius, and atomic radius in metals. State and explain why (using Coulombic force, C.F.) how the atomic radii changes as you go down a Group and across a Period.

• 10) Define 1st Ionization Energy (IE) and give the trends for IE as you go down a Group and across a Period. Be able to explain the trend using C.F.(not Shielding effect). Also, state the two Exceptions for Period 2 & 3 (2 for each period)

• 11) Define Higher Ionization Energies (IE) and explain how they can explain the charge on the element's ion. (i.e. Al3+)

• 12) Define Electronegativity (EN) and state(including why using C.F.)the general trends as you go down a Group and across a Period.

• 13) Explain how the ionic radius compares to the atomic radius for Metals and then for Non-metals. 'DO NOT usually explain general trends across Period'. Down a Group is same as Atomic radii.

• 14) State and explain why (using other trends)the trends for Metallic Characteristics as you go down a Group and across a Period.

• 15) Define Electron Affinity (EA) and state the general trend as you go down a Group and across a Period.

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