1. Name and give the chemical formula of acids. In addition, be able to determine if a given chemical name/formula is an acid compared to an ionic or molecular compound (other than an acid).
2. Define Arrhenius' theory of acids and bases in terms of the presence of hydronium and hydroxide ions.
3. Relate hydronium ion and hydroxide concentrations to the pH scale and to acidic, basic, and neutral solutions. Be able to calculate pH problems (or pOH problems).
4. Using your understanding of weak and strong acid/bases, be able to compare and contrast the strengths of various acids and bases (e.g. common acid/bases like vinegar, baking soda, orange juice).
5. Understand what a Neutralization reaction (acid base reaction) is and how to create a balanced complete chemical equation and use it in solving Neutralization problems.
6. Describe an acid-base titration (and be able to perform a strong acid - strong base titration) including its lab components (e.g. buret). Identify when the equivalence point is reached and its significance.
7. Explain how indicators are used in titrations and how they are selected. (Equivalence point of solution = Endpoint of the pH indicator)
8. Understand the Bonsted-Lowry (B-L) definition of an acid (hydrogen ion donor) and base (hydrogen ion acceptor). If given a acid/base chemical reaction, be able to determine the conjugate acid base pair either by showing it under the complete chemical reaction (i.e. acid1 base2) or by simply stating pair (acid-conjugate base). Also be able to determine the conjugate acid if given a base (or visa versa).
9. Using your knowledge of B-L acid/base, explain how ions affect the pH of water. In addition, identify what the two different types of buffer (acid buffer and base buffer) are , what components are in them and how they are used to explain what buffers do.