1. Determine the Lewis Dot Structure (LDS) for covalent bonding species (e.g. molecular cpds and polyatomic ions). This includes 1)total number of valence electrons, 2)number and types of bonds and 3)number of lone pairs on central atom.
2. From the Lewis Dot Structure, give the geometry (and bond angle) and hybridization of covalent bonding species. You must memorize the geometry and bond angles from VsperTable . For hybridization, define what a covalent bond is with respect to the orbitals, and explain how hybridization justify the exceeding the Rule of Eight (only central atoms in 3rd energy level or higher can work since have d subenergy level).
3. Determine the bond polarity (BondPolarity) (e.g. ionic, polar or nonpolar) from the difference in electronegativity (EN) values (will be given EN values) including showing polar bond symbol.
4. Determine the molecular polarity (MolecularPolarity) (e.g. dipole) of a species by explaining the molecular geometry and bond polarity.
Intermolecular Force (IMF)
5. Explain metallic bond including drawing figures to explain the physical properties of metals including how they relate to ionic compounds.
6. Determine the correct Intermolecular Forces (IntermolecularForces) (IMF) for each type of species (student will need to memorize table). In addition, be able to order species from lowest to highest IMF (either between IMF or within IMF).
7. Explain the difference between a gas and a vapor. Then, explain what vapor pressure (VaporPressureNotes) (Pvap) is (w.r.t. particles) and determine relative Pvap between species knowing IMF of the species.(2015-2016 Not Responsible on this test)
8. Define boiling point (BoilingPoint) (w.r.t Pvap) and determine the relative BP between species knowing the Pvap, IMF, and molecular polarity of the species. Be able to explain the difference between boiling and evaporating including where these physical processes are located. (2015-2016 Not Responsible for detailed explanation only which substance has higher/lower BP from IMF info.)
9. Using your knowledge of IMF, determine if two substances dissolve/miscible in each other. Know the definition of miscible/immiscible and understand and memorize the phrase (Like dissolves Like) to determine if two substance are dissolve/miscible in each other. Also, be able to make a drawing (and explain it) for these mixtures. [7.1](7.1). [Animated Website of Sodium Chloride dissolving in water].
10. Using your knowledge of of IMF, explain why a series of different substances (all at same temperature) are in different phases (i.e. solid, liquid, gas). Knowing that a substance can be in different phases, it only has one IMF value.
11. Be able to explain how the particles of solid, liquid, and gas are different, the energies of these particles. Also be able to relate to the standard heating curve (Temp vs. Energy graph.). Explain the difference between a gas and vapor and an definition of boiling based on KMT. (2015-2016 Learners do not need to know)
12) Be able to determine the theoretical (stoichiomettric) yield and percent yield.
Limiting Reactant Problems
13) Be able to identify when one needs to do a Limiting Reactant problem calculation when performing stoichiometry and then identify the limiting reactant (one that is used in stoichiometry to determine amount of product) and product in excess. In addition, be able to define stoichiometric amounts.
Special Only for 2015-2016 from Lab work
14) Be able to determine through calculations the Limiting reactant, calculate product information, and calculate amount left over of excess material.
Material to Memorize for Test
1. Geometric shapes (i.e. VsperTable)
2. Hybridization Rules and why need 3rd energy level or higher elements for Exceed Rule of Eight (d subenergy).
3. Different cut-offs (difference in EN values) for ionic, polar and non-polar bond.
4. Different IMF and the order of their strength including molecular geometries that have symmetry.
5. Definition of relevant words. 5. How to fill in the following tables/worksheets:[Worksheet for Molecular Geometry], [Worksheet for Molecular Polarity], [Worksheet for Comparing Boiling Point of Two Substances].