2. Determine the Lewis Dot Structure (LDS) for covalent bonding species (e.g. molecular cpds and polyatomic ions). This includes 1)total number of valence electrons, 2)number and types of bonds and 3)number of lone pairs on central atom.
3. From the Lewis Dot Structure, give the geometry (and bond angle) and hybridization of covalent bonding species. You must memorize the geometry and bond angles from VsperTable . For hybridization, define what a covalent bond is with respect to the orbitals, and explain how hybridization justify the exceeding the Rule of Eight (only central atoms in 3rd energy level or higher can work since have d subenergy level).
4. Determine the bond polarity (BondPolarity) (e.g. ionic, polar or nonpolar) from the difference in electronegativity (EN) values (will be given EN values) including showing polar bond symbol.
5. Determine the molecular polarity (MolecularPolarity) (e.g. dipole) of a species by explaining the molecular geometry and bond polarity.
6. Determine the correct Intermolecular Forces (IntermolecularForces) (IMF) for each type of species (student will need to memorize table). In addition, be able to order species from lowest to highest IMF (either between IMF or within IMF).
7. Explain the difference between a gas and a vapor. Then, explain what vapor pressure (VaporPressureNotes) (Pvap) is (w.r.t. particles) and determine relative Pvap between species knowing IMF of the species.
8. Define boiling point (BoilingPoint) (w.r.t Pvap) and determine the relative BP between species knowing the Pvap, IMF, and molecular polarity of the species. Be able to explain the difference between boiling and evaporating including where these physical processes are located.
9. Explain which of the region of a heating curve requires the most energy.
Material to Memorize for Test
1. Geometric shapes (i.e. VsperTable)
2. Hybridization Rules and why need 3rd energy level or higher elements for Exceed Rule of Eight (d subenergy).
3. Different cut-offs (difference in EN values) for ionic, polar and non-polar bond.
4. Different IMF and the order of their strength including molecular geometries that have symmetry.
5. How to fill in the following tables/worksheets:[Worksheet for Molecular Geometry], [Worksheet for Molecular Polarity], [Worksheet for Comparing Boiling Point of Two Substances].