# Answers For HW For Atomic Structure (Non-Math) - Revised 2023-2024

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Here is answers to Review HW for Atomic Structure (Non-math) - Revised 2023-2024

1a) Democritus
1b) atmos

2)
a) Atoms are the smallest particle of matter (it is indivisible).
• Subatomic particles exist (electron, proton, neutron)
b) Atoms of the same element are identical including mass.
• Isotopes - atoms of same element that are different by mass (# of neutrons)
c) Atoms of different elements are different including mass.
d) Atoms combine to form compounds in a simple whole number ratio

3) a. Total number of atoms are conserved.
b. Number of each type of atom are conserved.

4) He placed two pieces of metal (atoms) in a vacuum (locate with very few air particles) and electrify the two pieces of metal. He saw a green glow going between two pieces of metal. He then exposed the green glow to a magnetic and the glow bend away from the negative end of the magnet. to the positive end of the magnet, This showed that the green glow was not light but a negative particle. He called it corpuscles, we call it electrons. He changed the power of the magnet and the glow bend more less that explains that the charge to mass ratio of the electron was a constant. This indicates that there is only one type of electron.

5) Plum Pudding Model

6)Rutherford "shot" a small positive particle (alpha particle) at gold leaf (closest the one atom thick) and detected where the alpha particles went.A very few times the alpha particle "bounce back" indicating sometime massive in atom. Most of times alpha particles went straight thru that massive "thing" is small volume. He also detected alpha particles at other deflection that indicates that positive charge particle came close to another positive area. So called this small volume, high mass, positively charged are the nucleus.

6) Volume of atom is approximately 1.0E4times more volume than the volume of the nucleus.

7) Nuclear model

8) Planetary model, electrons

9a) Energy levels
9b) distance, energy
9c) In energy levels, electrons do not revolve the around nucleus like planets around the Sun.

10a) Electrons in an atom are in the lowest AVAILABLE energy level
10b) NOT 10a)
10c) Atom abosrbs a specific energy packet size that the electron uses to be promoted ("jumped up") to a higher energy level.
10d) Instantaneously, that electron "falls" back down to the original lower energy level. The specific energy packet size is emitted into the Universe.
10e) Fall from a higher energy level to a lower energy level.

11) Planck said energy/light comes at you in quantas (discrete energy packets)

12) Energy/light comes at you as a wave
13) DeBroglie that energy/light is both a particle and a wave at the same time (he called it Duality of Light).
14) Atom absorbs energy in discrete packet size (acting like a particle) and emits energy and characterize it as a wave.
15) Indirectly

16) Directly

17) Indirectly

18) Infrared (λ>750.nm), Red = 750.nm, Violet = 400.nm, Ultraviolet (λ<400.nm)

19a) Charge Cloud modelEach element has a unique

19b) It's exact location/pathway
19c) Orbital is the 3-D region of space outside the nucleus where you "find" (highest probability of finding) an electron with that given amount of energy. All orbitals "add up" to Bohr's energy levels.

19d) s, p, d, f (actually at slightly different energies from each other in the energy level. s orbitals have lowest energy to f orbitals having the highest.

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