**Generate balanced redox reaction using Oxidation number method. **Represent a balanced redox reaction equation using half-reactions method.
For 2019-2020 Year, Chapter 4 in Zumdahl. Objectives almost line-up exactly how Zumdahl presents the topics.
Topic 4.1 Introduction for Reactions
Identify evidence of chemical and physical changes in matter (Four Observation of Chemical Reaction). Also rearrangement of atoms after collision (makes chemical reaction).
Topic 4.2 Net Ionic Equations
Besides balanced complete chemical reactions, complete ionic reaction (includes spectator ions), and net ionic reactions (without spectator ions) can represent a chemical reaction.
Topic 4.3 Representations of Reactions
A substance that changes its properties, or that changes into a different substance, can be represented by chemical equations. Balanced chemical equations in their various forms can be translated into symbolic particulate representations.
Topic 4.4 Physical and Chemical Changes
Explain the relationship between macroscopic characteristics and bond interactions for a) Chemical processes b) Physical processes. Processes that involve the breaking and/or formation of chemical bonds are typically classified as chemical processes. Processes that involve only changes in intermolecular interactions, such as phase changes, are typically classified as physical processes.
Topic 4.5 Stoichiometry
Be able to understand what coefficients of a balance chemical reaction mean (particle, mole &volume ratios) and be able to do stoichiometric calculations (including ones combined with the ideal gas law and calculations involving molarity to quantitatively study gases and solutions.
Topic 4.6 Introduction to Titration
Be able to calculate titration (volumetric analysis) of various system (i.e. acid-base, redox) including understanding equivalence point endpoint of indicator (or reflection in mV). Be able to use titration to standardize a solution, determine the molar mass of a substance and other volumetric analysis.
Topic 4.7 Types of Chemical Reactions
Identify a reaction as acid- base, oxidation-reduction, or precipitation.
Be able to generate balanced chemical reaction for acid-base reactions including net ionic reaction & stoichiometry calculations
Be able to determine Oxidation number and show and determine if it is a redox reaction and what species are oxidized reduced. Oxidizing agent and reducing are not part of AP exam.
Be able to determine products of a precipitation reactions (including net ionic reaction) and calculate stoichiometry.
For solubility rules, only need to have memorizes for AP exam that All sodium, potassium, ammonium, and nitrate salts are soluble in water.
Topic 4.8 Introduction to Acid - Base Reactions
Identify Arrhenius acid and bases
Identify species as Brønsted- Lowry acids, bases, and/or conjugate acid-base pairs, based on proton-transfer involving those species.
Lewis Definition of Acid and Base (electron pair acceptor and donor) will not be on exam
Topic 4.9 Oxidation - Reduction (Redox) Reaction
Generate balanced redox reaction using Oxidation number method.
Represent a balanced redox reaction equation using half-reactions method.