Since we have one week to deal with Gasses, I will simply provide the information and will NOT be doing any demos or labs. At the bottom of this webpage, there is a link to a simulator/animation to better understand the "Gas Laws" (Boyle's, Charle's, and Gay-Lassic Laws).

We will first look at the Particle view of Gasses including the 4 main parameters/characteristics of gas particles, under General Information on Gasses.

- [You Tube Video on the Behavior of Gas Particles] - watch this video (about 11 mins)
- [Handout of Behavior of Gas Particles] - Notes that include all 3 webpages below and other hand notes

So now you should know that Gas particles have four parameters

a) Volume, volume gas particle occupy not actual size of particle, usually in mL or L (symbol V)

b) Number of gas particles, in number of moles (symbol n)

c) Gas pressure (I think of number of hits on the container wall for all the gas particle in substance), many different unit but atm is most used, (symbol P)

Now we will start taking a look at Gas calculations. There are "a lot" of gas calculations "out there" so I have found it is best to organize them into different groups. However, all of the equations are derived or comes from the Ideal Gas law (that will be explained below).

Unlike some of the other chemical concepts, for gas calculations, I think it is important to have an overview of all the gas calculations before dealing with any specific gas calculation.

SO the next section deals with Overview. Before you start looking at the Youtube video, I would like to emphasize what I call a Condition. Each condition is a gas (actually a lot of gas particles) that can be describe with the 4 parameters (V,n,P,T). So there are 2 possibilities:

a) 1 Condition problem: this is where one is just describing the gas using the 4 parameters (no action verbs in question/problem

b) 2 Condition problem : this is where one is "doing something" to the gas SO there is the initial condition (Condition 1) and then after you do something (i.e. increasing temp, decreasing volume), you have the new condition (Condition 2). Usually, people use 1 and 2 as subscripts in the equation (see Gas Law Equation sheet below).

Here is a more in-depth overview.

- [You Tube Video for Overview of Gas Calculations] - watch this video (14 min)
- [Overview of Gas Calculations] - Reference on which law to use for problem
- Steps to Calculate Gas Problems - General Procedures to follow for all the calculations below
- [Actual Example of Work for Gas Problems] (has actual work on page)

- [Overview of Gas Calculations] - Reference on which law to use for problem

Now we will turn our attention to each law specifically.

To determine the correct mathematical equation to use for the problem you need to answer a few questions (organizational flow chart) about what is going on to the gas particles and their 4 parameters (V,n,T,P):

- How many Conditions (see above for discussion)?
- 1 Condition, only one equation Ideal Gas Law
- 2 Conditions, how many parameters are being held constant?
- 2 parameters held constant, 2 parameters vary
- 1 parameters held constant (n), 3 parameters vary

The below information is organized using the answers to these questions (as section heading and are underlined). The discussion of each law (specific gas condition(s)) will include:

- Name of law
- Explanation of law using Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT or Particle View of Matter)
- Ideal Gas Law and Combined Gas Laws do not have this but have webpages of notes

- Gas Law Equation Sheet (also above) where one can find specific equation(s)
- Example of Expected work
- Youtube video of explanation of concept including expected work

- Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP) - reference info
- IdealGasLaws - notes
- [Gas Law Equation Sheet] - Find 3 Equations here (don't have one for R, it is a constant)
- [Example of Work for Ideal Gas Law - One Problem]
- [You Tube video of Expected Work for Ideal Gas Law Calculations]
- IdealGasLawsProblemSet (answers at bottom of page)

*Particle View of Matter (KMT) explanation*: if you keep the Temp,T, (energy/speed each particle has) and number of gas particles (n) the same, as you reduce the size of the container (decrease V), the particles would have to "hit the wall" more often thereby increasing total hits on wall (increase P).

- [Gas Law Equation Sheet] - Find 2 Equations here
- [Example of Work for Boyle's Law - One Problem]
- [You Tube video on Expected Work for Boyle's Law Calculations]
- BoylesLawProblemSet (answers at bottom of page)

*Particle View of Matter (KMT) explanation*: if you keep the volume of the container the same (const V) and the number of gas particles (n) the same, as you increase the Temp,T, (energy/speed of particles), the gas particles must hit the wall more times (increase P) since "they are going faster" and the volume they have before hitting the side of container is not changing.

- [Gas Law Equation Sheet] - Find 2 Equations here
- [Example of Work for Guy-Lussaic Law - One Problem]
- [You Tube video of Expected Work for Guy-Lussaic Law Calculations]
- Guy-Lussaic' (No Name) Law Problem Set (answers at bottom of page)

*Particle View of Matter (KMT) explanation*: if you keep the total number of hits on the wall the same (const P) and the number of gas particles (n) the same, as you increase the Temp,T, (energy/speed of particles), the volume must increases (V) since the gas particles are moving "faster/farther" and they can not hit the wall more times (const P), the volume must be greater.

- [Gas Law Equation Sheet] - Find 2 Equations here
- [Example of Work for Charles' Law - One Problem]
- [You Tube video of Expected Work for Charles' Law Calculations]
- CharlesLawProblemSet (answers at bottom of page)

*Particle View of Matter (KMT) explanation*: If you keep total number of "hits on the wall" and the energy/speed of gas particle and add more gas particles (increase n), then you must add more volume (increase V) so that you don't change number of "hits on wall".**Disclaimer: This is NOT actual what Avogadro hypothesized (will be covered in a different discussion) but is a function of that hypothesis**- [Gas Law Equation Sheet] - Find 2 Equations here
- [Example of Work for Avogadro's Hypothesis - One Problem]
- [You Tube video on Expected Work on Avogadro's Hypothesis Calculations]
- AvogadrosHypothesisProblemSet (answers at bottom of page)

- CombinedGasLaw - notes
- [Gas Law Equation Sheet] - Find 3 Equations here
- [Example of Expected Work for Combined Gas Law Calculations]
- [You Tube Video on Expected Work for Combined Gas Law Calculations]
- CombinedGasLawProblemSet (answers at bottom of page)